Distinction And Characteristics Of Leather Raw Materials For Leather Making

- Aug 27, 2018 -

There are many kinds of raw materials used in leather and fur industry, especially fur raw materials. The raw materials used in leather industry are briefly introduced.

Looking at the world leather industry, the main raw materials are cowhide, sheepskin and pigskin, in addition to some other leather.

cowhide

The number of cattle in stock in the world is about 1.435 billion in 1997. The slaughter rate is about 15%-25% every year (there is a great difference between countries). The annual output of cattle hide is about 300 million. The annual output of cattle hide is about 100,000 tons. Cowhide includes cattle hide, buffalo hide and other cattle skin. Cowhide accounts for about 2/3 (65%-70%) of the world's total leather production, of which 67% is used to manufacture leather shoes, 33% is used to process clothing, leather and furniture, etc. In recent years, the use of cowhide for processing automobile cushion leather has an increasing trend. Cowhide is the most important raw material resource for leather industry in the world.

Our country produces about 12 million pieces of cowhide annually.

There are many kinds of cowhide, such as cowhide, beef hide, grazing cowhide, cowhide, bullhide, uncut cowhide and castrated cowhide. There are also cattle hide, buffalo skin, yak skin and calf skin in China. They can be made into almost all kinds of leather products according to the situation and needs of raw materials.

The type, origin, age, sex, feeding condition and mode, climate, area, thickness, weight grade, fat content, sweat gland, blood vessel and the density of fur directly determine the structure of cattle hide, and thus affect the application value of cattle hide and the properties of the leather.

The thickness of the cowhide that is slaughtered by cattle is different from that of cattle, which is generally about 3~12mm. The loose papilla layer, the compact fleshy layer, the epidermis layer, the subcutaneous tissue and the skin thickness are 10% ~ 20%, 70% ~ 80%, 0.5% ~ 1% and 5% ~ 10% respectively. The latter two kinds of leather are removed in the water processing.

The area size varies with the origin and age and so on between 2.0~5.5 square meters. Calf skin is similar to ordinary cowhide, but has more detailed fiber weaving and construction. The total thickness of the raw skin is about 1.5-3.5 mm. The papillary layer is about 25%-30%, the reticular layer is about 50%-60%, the surface layer is about 1%, and the subcutaneous tissue layer is about 10%-20%. With the improvement of raising, that is, the raising of fat, the fat content in cattle hide is also increasing. Because calf leather has very fine pores and tight grain, it can be used to make very fine grain leather. The smaller the calf, the thinner the leather. However, the processing of calf hide is more difficult than that of cattle hide, mainly trying to open the fat lines, and the resources of raw calf hide are limited. Calf skin is mainly used for making bright, fine grain upper quality upper leather.

The calf skin mainly comes from Indonesia and most parts of South and central China. Compared with cowhide, buffalo hide has thicker hair, sparse hair and rough grain surface, and its surface is thicker, but the local collagen fiber is looser. Buffalo hide is usually processed into industrial leather (such as leather belt), upper leather and so on. In recent years, it is more used in making furniture leather (such as sofa leather, car cushion leather, mat leather, etc.).

sheep skin

The total number of sheep in the world is about 12 million, with an annual slaughter rate of 25%~45%. In 1996, the number of sheep and goats in China was estimated to be 260 million. Sheep leather accounts for about 10%~12% of the total leather output. In addition to leather making, sheep skins are also used for making fur and fur leather.

1.species

The sheep bag includes sheep, crossbred sheep and fine wool sheep. Generally, leather is used to breed sheep or crossbred sheep. Native sheep skin is the best material for leather making. Sheepskin can be processed into garment leather, written packaging leather, glove leather, lining leather, compact sheepskin such as native sheepskin can be made into upper leather. Most sheep and goats and fine wool sheepskin are used to make fur.

2.organizational characteristics

The purpose of raising sheep is to get wool and meat. Generally speaking, the finer the coat and the looser the structure of the sheep's leather, the lower the leather value of the sheep's leather.

The thickness of sheep skin is about 1-3 mm. The raw skin contains many sweat glands and hair follicles deep into the skin. The papillary layer accounts for 40%-60% of the thickness of the dermis, the reticular layer accounts for 25%-40%, the sheep skin contains more fat cells, and there are more developed subcutaneous tissues. The fat content of sheep skin accounts for about 30% or more of the skin weight. Owing to the loose structure of sheepskin, the leather has a comfortable feel, but the strength is relatively low.

The lamb skin has similar structure but has a more detailed and compact structure.

The average area of the sheep skin is about 0.4~0.9 square meters, and the lambs skin is about 0.3~0.7 square meters.

goat skin

There are about 600 million goats in the world. The annual slaughter rate is about 20%-40%, accounting for 8%-10% of the total leather production. China is rich in goatskin resources, with an annual output of about 30 million pieces, of which Sichuan Road and Hankou Road are the best. Goatskin can be used to make all kinds of leather, including high-grade leather such as polished upper leather, but also can be processed into tight and durable garment leather, written leather, clothing leather and shoe lining leather. Fine leather gloves can also be made from goat skin.

The quality of goat skin is different from that of sheep, origin, age and feeding condition. It has a higher fastness than sheep leather. In the thickness of goat skin, the nipple is about 30%~40% and the net layer is about 40%~50%. Between the two layers


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